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张海霞 主谓一致解题微技巧探究

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张海霞 主谓一致解题微技巧探究

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  在复习主谓一致这个语法专题时,由于涉及到主谓一致的语法规则比较多,学生即使在背诵记忆之后也觉得做题时易犯糊涂,从而导致较多失误,尤其在改错题中,还往往发现不了相关错误。究其原因,我觉得有一个关键点要突破:了解主谓一致的设题形式。在这里,我对主谓一致的常设题形式进行了归纳总结,期望能够帮助到同学们快速入门,发现问题,解决问题。
  主谓一致的题目通常会利用以下几个形式结构出题。
 
  一,定语从句
  请观察下面这些句子
  1.John is one of the students who have the keys.
  2.John is the only one of the students who has the keys.
  3.Everything is in a complete mass,which drives people crazy.
  解析:定语从句中主谓一致的突破点在于---找到从句所修饰的成分。比如句1,修饰先行词students,故用复数谓语;句2修饰the only one故用单数谓语;句3是学生比较难把握的一种,指代前面整句话,所以看成单数谓语。
 
  二,强调句
  请观察下列句子
  1.It is one's inner beauty that matters.
  2.The truth is that the passers-by,rather than the driver,that are to blame.
  解析:强调句中的主谓一致突破点在于---找到被强调的部分。比如句1,强调beauty,故用单数谓语;句2结构稍微复杂,在分析出强调句后,找到被强调部分passers-by,故用复数谓语。
 
  三,全部倒装句
  请观察下列句子
  1.There stands the teaching building between the two rows of trees.
  2. Look! Outside the classroom are standing fourteen boys from other schools.
  3.From here you can see a beautiful house,in front of which lies a lake.
  解析:倒装句中的主谓一致突破点在于---发现倒装,找到主语。句1是常规的there be倒装句;句2是表方位的介词短语提前的倒装句(实际上就是there 的变形);句3则是隐含在非限制性定语从句中的倒装句。明白倒装含义,则能找到真正主语从而判断正确的谓语。
 
  四,主谓分隔句
  请观察下列句子
  1.The girl as well as the boys has gone to plant trees.
  2.All the explorers,including my brother-in-law,are leaving for Tibet next week.
  3.The first reason for outdoor activities is that I have spent too much time indoors.
  4.The amount of money parents give to their children to spend as they wish differs from family to family.
  解析:这种题型的突破点在于---多总结分隔类型,快速发现真正的谓语动词。比如句1,2,3就是常见的介词短语分隔现象,类似的还有rather than,as long as,together with等等;句4则是被定语从句分隔,这就要求对从句的判断要准确。
 
  五,动名词做主语
  请观察下列句子
  1.I can't remember her face now but recalling these incidents makes me happy.
  2.So if you have not prepared enough,having some indoor amusements is also a good choice.
  解析:单个动名词做主语谓语动词用单数,这一点大多数同学都能掌握。但是突破点却在于学生能否发现这是一个做主语的动名词,能否找到另外一个谓语动词。这是此类题突破关键。
 
  六,特殊名词做主语
  请观察下列句子
  1.The news that has been published in today's newspaper is not true.
  2.The New York Times,as most people know, is widely accepted in America.
  解析:句1、2除了需要观察结构外,同时也要注意主语的特殊性,否则就会功亏一篑。突破点就在于能够把一些特殊的名词,如专有名词,不可数名词等牢牢记在心里。
 
  七,设置干扰词
  除了以上所述常见的结构形式,我还要提醒大家一个有趣的现象,那就是,出题人在设题时,还会在要填的谓语动词前面设置复数名词或者单数名词进行干扰。我们可以观察下列题目的干扰形式:
  1.To understand the living conditions of local workers requires more thought than has been given.
  2.Such poets as Shakespeare are called genius.
  3.The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities is rising steadily since 1990.
  解析:句1实为动词不定式做主语用单数,句2真正的主语是poets要用复数谓语,句3真正的主语是the number要用单数谓语,但有趣的是每一个谓语动词前面都出现了干扰词workers,Shakespeare,universities,突破点仍然在于抓本质---找主语。
  总而言之,在突破主谓一致这个语法项目时,我们熟悉了结构,了解了陷阱形式,我们就不会轻易上当,在解题时眼睛就会更加明亮,能够快速找出短文改错中的错误,也会在语法填空中结合语境找到准确的动词形式。
 
  下面附上一些典型题目,供大家研究出题人会在哪里进行设题,从而对主谓一致了解的更好。
  1.The great outback of Australia is a wonderland for those who go there and a few people even luckily make it to the most mysterious continent on the earth---Antarctic.
  2.You,dear diary,are my only souvenir my past life and my only friend.
  3.And my performance on reading and correcting is not satisfying.
  4.I went on a trip in the capital of my province last year.The activity,which lasted two days,was great,and I made good friends.
  5.The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the qoality of the products.
  6.I recently read an article about the damage that playing games is doing to kids.
  7.Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job,because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit her or him.
  8.One positive word can put a smile on a face that is hopeless and wants to give up.