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张海霞 利用问题引领式教学策略,开展状语从句一轮复习

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张海霞 利用问题引领式教学策略,开展状语从句一轮复习

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  本学年度,高复年级谢主任给我们定下了“问题引领式教学”的教学指导方针,其目的是打造高效课堂,提高复习效率,获取事半功倍的教学效果。在此方针的指导下,我在一轮复习当中进行了尝试。现以一轮复习中状语从句的复习为例,来浅谈自己的教学思路。
  状语从句是一个重要的语法项目,属于三大从句之一。它的连接词种类多,意义丰富,逻辑性强,所以学生往往耐不住性子来进行状语从句的复习。他们做题的思路就是,翻译地差不多就行。可是事实是,他们的翻译往往差得多。究其原因,就是只学到了表面,能够解决比较简单的问题;如果碰到复杂的问题,由于对本质理解不够深刻,要么不会分析,要么靠蒙,失误颇多。尤其复读生,对状语从句往往是知其然而不知所以然,却又不愿再次静下心去研究它。因此,“问题引领式教学”的教学指导方针呼之欲出,切实可行,比较好地解决这些矛盾。
  问题引领式教学的出发点就是组织学生引导学生解决学习上的问题,使学生温故而知新,自觉自愿体验知识获得的过程和方法,最后形成自己的知识框架和体系。在这个过程中,有以下几个操作步骤。
  第一步就是通过设问激发兴趣。我上面刚刚提到过,复读生对于“炒现饭”式的学习是没有兴趣的。那么,复习状语从句时怎么提高他们的兴趣呢?我觉得就是要提出一些以前被他们所忽略的关于状语从句的问题。以时间状语从句为例,我会提出以下问题:1.when/while怎么区分?2.since/before怎么区分?3.你能用before造出5个句子吗?4.the moment/the year/every time/…在引导状语从句时,我们容易犯什么错误?5.时间状语从句中有哪些句型的时态是固定的有规律可行的?条件状语从句,我会提出下列问题:1.你会用once吗?2.if/unless 你是否经常混淆?如果不,那你是怎么区分的?3.in case 接句子后面从句的动词时态是什么样的?改错题对in case通常怎么设题?原因状语从句,我会提出下列问题:1.as/since能够引导几种从句?2.回顾对比the reason why…/this is because…/this is why…等表原因的从句3.思考为什么because和so不能连用?目的状语从句,我会提出下列问题:1.for fear that什么意思?怎么造句?2.in order to、in order that在使用时容易犯什么样的错误?地点状语从句,我会提出以下问题:1.你怎么跟一个没有地状概念的人讲清楚什么是地点状语从句?2.地点状语从句怎么设计改错题?3.everywhere能够引导地点状语从句吗?对于结果状语从句,我会提出下列问题:1.so和such有什么区别?2.so/such…that和so/such…as区别3.so that与so…that的区别在哪里?对于让步状语从句,我会提出下列问题:1.though/although为什么不和but连用?2.as/though引导的让步状语从句是不是一定要用倒装?3.看到or是不是一定填whether?还有哪个词可以考虑?怎么区分?4.however与whatever的区别?对于方式状语从句,我会提出下列问题:1.as与as though引导的从句是一样的吗?对于比较状语从句,我会提出下列问题:1.你会用as…as/the same …as造句吗?2.你对倍数的表达法熟悉吗?3.你注意到比较状语从句中替代词的用法吗?对于所有状语从句的总结,我也有下列问题:1.状语从句的时态能不能进行小结?2.状语从句和非谓语的知识点怎么发生联系?这些问题其实是很容易被学生忽略的类型,即使部分问题他们知道答案,但也缺乏归纳和对比。因此,这些问题,能够激起学生探索的兴趣,同时也充当复习纲领的作用,给学生以复习的方向。简言之,这是门前一脚,是对复习内容的一个预习过程。这个过程能够有效督导学生自主思考。这个过程一般会给出一周的时间让学生去思考准备,检查则放在周一。
  第二步是课堂讨论和提问。在对预习作业进行初步检查之后,我会安排2个课时进行问题的呈现和讨论。因为学生在预习的这个过程中,肯定会发现有些问题很模糊,有些问题无法下手,或者在和同伴对答案的过程中发现观点分歧。怎么解决?1.分组讨论。先把组分好,每个组解决2个问题,组内分享预习结果或者解决问题。2.提问。解决不了的问题,可由组长提出,先由学生自己解答,不清楚的或者解答不了的,由教师我解答。3.回顾总结。给时间让学生整理笔记。这个阶段就是一个答疑过程。通过小组互助学习,合作交流,教师帮助,归纳总结,对知识体系有了更深的理解,形成框架和属于自己的结构体系。总言之,听之不如说之,听别人讲和讲给别人听,深度还是不一样的。如果学生有余力,我也会要求学生绘制思维导图,进一步理清思路。
  第三步,利用导学案巩固基础知识。在这里,我主要把导学案设计的理念介绍一下。课堂导学案我觉得总体包括以下几个内容:1.方便学生快速回顾的基础知识(比如状语从句的类型,功能特点,连词的含义)2.检测基础能力的练习(比如通过例句找出或分析出各种连词的基本用法)3.帮助发现问题的练习题(比如课堂小练)4.实战总结(比如每一部分后面的小结板块)在选题上,注重陷阱题和常规题,高考题与训练题的选择,题目不在多,关键要帮助学生发现问题,找出缺陷。最重要的是,要学会自己站在出题人的角度,去设置题目,设置障碍,归纳解题方法。
  第四步,在通过前面几步操作,构建了知识体系,掌握一定的解题方法后,完成《精准高考》上面的语法专练题。这一块相当于一个课后检测,是学生对所学知识,方法再梳理运用的一个过程。这个过程一般就是把它设计成家庭作业的形式。通过家庭作业的巩固,对做题的思维是一个再次整理。简言之,就是查漏补缺。我在评讲家庭作业同时,也会提出一些问题供他们思考。比如,你在做题中发现了什么新问题?你是怎么解决的?你有没有发现什么什么捷径可以走?通过状语从句板块的学习,你觉得还有哪些知识可以串起来的?
  第五步,教师的自我反思过程。其实很多教学方法想和做是两回事。在每一个教学理念贯彻实施之后,我都会去做一个思路上的总结。比如状语从句上完之后,我感觉有这样几个地方需要改进:1.问题设置要更加简洁2.例句呈现要更加情景化3.要关注学生对句子的翻译理解,不能把连接词和句意孤立分开来讲。这些我会在未来的教学中加以改进。
  总而言之,较之于传统的语法复习策略,这种问题引领式教学是可以先学后教,以学定教,适当增加了学生的参与程度,虽然教师教的少了,但学生通过自己研究自己巩固,学得更多一些。学生变成了学习的主人,教学效果自然也有所提高。当然,对于这个新的教学理念。我们还需要不断的通过实践去调整和优化,以追求最好的实效性。另外,由于每届学生不一样,方法也要随之调整。
  下面我附上状语从句的一轮复习导学案,供大家指正。
  一轮复习---时间状语从句导学案(adverbial clause)
  一。定义(definition)
  状语就是一个句子中的副词成分,那么都什么可以充当副词成分呢?1.副词本身可以
  2.介词短语俩词性,形容词,副词,所以介词短语可以。3.分词词性是形容词副词,所以分词也可以
  4.不定式充当名词,形容词,副词,所以不定式也可以。那么当这些单词或者短语不能完全满足我们的需要,我们需要句子,需要句子来表示状语含义,这就是状语从句。
  二。功能(function)
  状语修饰什么?动词,形容词,副词,或者全句。如果你在一个句子里找到修饰这四种词性的词,那么他就是状语成分,它对这四个词起到什么作用呢?
  说明地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、方向、程度、方式和伴随状况等。
  比如Jack speaks Chinese very well. very well修饰speak这个动词?说的怎么样?
  说的很好,那么very well就是状语成分,再看very well,well是副词,表示“好”,怎么个“好”法?“非常”好!非常是不是修饰“好”的程度?所以very这里就是very well这个小词组的状语成分,very well修饰动词speak,very修饰副词well
  状语从句功能:从句用来修饰某个动词,某个形容词,副词或者某整句话
  三。找状语(underline the adverbial part)
  1.Ten years ago,he lived in London.
  2.Jack was praised for his bravery.
  3.Having had a quarrel with his wife, he left home in a bad temper.
  4.Equipped with computers,the library provides the students with easy access to information.
  5.They arrived at home,safe and sound.
  6.I hurried to catch the first bus,only to find it had gone.
  7.As soon as I received the letter,I called my mother.
  四。状语从句类型(type)(recall and write down relative conjunctions)
  时间状语从句:_when_______________________________________________
  条件状语从句:___if___________________________________________
  让步状语从句: ____although_____________________________________________
  地点状语从句: __________________________________________________
  原因状语从句: __________________________________________________
  目的状语从句: __________________________________________________
  结果状语从句: __________________________________________________
  比较状语从句: __________________________________________________
  方式状语从句: __________________________________________________
  五。考点透析(test points)
  (一)时间状语从句
  第一组:when  while  as
  先看各自的意思
  while:①during the time that sth. is happening当…时,在…时②all the time that sth.is happening在…的过程中,趁着③used to emphasize the difference between two situations ,activities却,但是,然而④in spite of虽然,尽管(此时请思考while表达不同含义时通常的位置?)
  as:during the time that…
  when:①during the time that sth. happens 当…时②just at that time 正在那时…③after or as soon as sth.happens在(某事发生)后,一…就…④to introduce a situation that makes sth.seem surprising 既然,在…情况下
  读译下列句子,看看when,as,while分别是哪种用法
  1.Strike the iron while it is hot.
  2.Would you look after the children while I do the shopping?
  3.A true friend is someone who sees the pain in your eyes while everyone else believes the smile on your face.
  4.While you were reading the paper, I was working
  5.When I was a child ,we lived in London.
  6.We were about to start when it began to rain.
  7.I will give the book to him when he arrives.
  8.Why do you want a new job when you've got such a great one?
  9.The little girl sang as they went.
  10.As time went on,the weather got worse.
  11.As I get older I get more optimistic
  12.As I opened my eyes I heard a strange voice.
  课堂小练:1. Babies sleep l6 to l8 hours in every 24 hours, and they sleep less ________ they grow older.
  A. while           B. As           C. when               D. after
  2._____ John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.
  A. As             B. As soon as     C. While              D. Till
  3.Hardly had he arrived in Hongkong ________ she rang me up.
  A. when            B. Than         C. that                D. and
  4.He was about to go to bed ________ the doorbell rang.
  A. while            B. as           C. then                D. when
  5. _______ you are at home alone, please don't leave the door open.
  A. While           B. As           C. Before              D. How
  6.__________I came in,two girls were talking.
  A. while            B. as           C. then                D. when
  7.I was walking on the street_____________a bike run into me.
  A. while            B. as           C. that               D. When
  8.While___________(walk)the dog,you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.
  9.I can still remember it was in the year 2008__________an earthquake happened in my hometown.
  小结下常用的when句型____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
  第二组before和after
  一,先观察下列句子,判断before/after词性
  1.One must sow before one can reap.
  2.Pride goes before a fall.
  3. Before leaving he said goodbye to each of them.
  4.He said he had never seen her before.
  5.Lock the barn door after the horse is stolen.
  6.It's easy to be wise after the event.
  7. Hilary got here at midday and Nicholas arrived soon after.
  8.Three months after they moved out, the house was still empty.
  9. Soon/shortly after we set off, the car started to make a strange noise.
 
  二,准确翻译下列含before的句子,总结常用before句型
  1.It was long before he came to help me.
  2.It wasn't long before the fire was put out.
  3.It will be another five days before we finish this task.
  4.It won't be a long time before someone comes to see you.
  5.The big fire lasted four hours before the firemen brought it under control
  6.Three months went by before I became accustomed to the life here.
  7. ?We waited a long time before the train arrived.
  8. Before I could figure out what had happened,he forced me into the car.
  9. You'd better write the phrases down before you forget them.
  10.We can set off early before it gets hot.
  11.He was so absorbed in his work that four hours had passed before he knew it.
  12. I'd die before I apologized to them.
 
  归纳常用before句型________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________课堂小练:
 
  1. It may take a while _____ you find a hobby that truly interests yourself, so don't give up.
  A. that        B. before      C. unless       D. since
  2. How long do you think ____________the computer company brings out a new product ?
  A. it will be before              B. will it be until
  C. will it be when               D. it will be that
  3.It' s quite a time__________ Yao Ming got injured, but it won' t be long__________ he returns to the court.
  A. since; before      B. after; when     C. before; since   D. that; when
  6. How long do you suppose it is ______he arrived there?
  A. when              B. before          C. after           D. since.
  7.You don't need to have a perfect plan before______________(take)action.
  8.The man was saved after______________(send)to hospital.
  9.The holiday came to an end_____________I knew it.
  10.(2015高考)It was raining lightly when I___61___ (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. But I didn't care. A few hours___62___, I'd been at home in Hong Kong, with___63___ (it) choking smog. Here, the air was clean and fresh, even with the rain.
  11.Just looking at music books briefly,they could sing and play well.It was not long that they formed a band,which all of them had dreamed of.
 
  第三组    since
  请重点关注since句型的时态
  1.I've been looking for you?since?the day when I heard my first Fairytale
  2.I have been here since five months ago./eight o'clock?
  3.He has written to me frequently since I fell ill.
  4.It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.
  5.I haven't heard from him since he lived here.
 
  课堂小练:
  1.---Have you known each other for long?
  ---Not very long,_______we started to work in the company.
  A.after          B.before        C.when       D.since
  2.He got a job with the film in 1970 and ______________(work)there ever since.
  3.Great changes _________________(take)place in our city since you left.
  4.---Has he cut out smoking?
  ---Yes.It's three months_____________he smoked.
  5.More luckily,great importance__________________(attach)to protecting our environment ever since the occurrence of so many earthquakes.As long as we change our way of life we are sure to achieve success.
  6.(广东卷)This Christmas I was debating what to give my father ___________my eyes fell on a photo of dandelion(蒲公英)standing against the blue sky.Beside it were some words from my father,who_______________(recite)those words to me since I was a kid.
  7.(广东卷)The cow was their only means of support,in fact.One day,the cow was eating grass__________it began to rain heavily.While_________(make) great efforts to run away,she _____________(fall)over the hill and died.Then Mr. Johnson had to make a living__________the cow.Mr.Johnson tried to plant herbs(草药) and vegetables .Since the plants took a while to grow,he__________(start)cutting down trees.
  8.I have heard about you a lot_____________I went back to China.
  第四组 as soon as /the moment / the minute/the instant/ immediately/ directly/ instantly
  思考:这些名词性短语或副词连接句子时,都是作什么词用?
  Directly  he was paid, he went out shopping.
  The moment I saw the broken window,I realized something bad had happened in the house.
  I'll  call you as soon as he arrives here.
 
  课堂小练:
  请把例句123设成改错题
  做一做下面两道题,然后进行总结
  ①I had hardly come into the classroom ___________ the bell rang
  ②Upon your ___________(arrive) (= as soon as you ___________(arrive)), please report to the reception desk.
  英语中表示“一…就…”的句型有哪些?使用这些句型主要注意什么?
  _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  第五组    by the time,every time,each time,next time,last time,the first time
  The first time I saw you, my heart fell.
  Next time you come in, please close the door.
  We will have finished the work by next month.
  He has read about 40 pages of the book by now.?
  By the time the doctor arrived ,the patient had died.
  思考:1.the first time/next time后面的句子是完整的吗?__________________________
  2.含by the time的句子,时态有什么规律?_____________________________________
  _________________________________________________________________________
  课堂小练:
  1.Next time when I plan to travel in London.I'm going to take a plane.
  2.Fortunately,his roommateLeonard was very tolerant and always forgives him at every time Sheldon makes a mistake.
  3. Every time my mother come to visit me on Wednesday,she will bring a lot of tasty food to me.
  4.By the time he returned to his hometown,great changes had been taken place there.
  5.The first time I went to Wuhan,I______________(fall)in love with the city.
  6.That was the first time I___________________(experience)such a terrible disaster.
  第六组 till/until
  准确翻译下列句子,体会until用法
  Bill kept on working until he finished his homework.
  He was away from home until midnight.t
  A man can fail many times,but he isn't a failure until he begins to blame somebody else.
  We never know the love of the parents until we become parents ourselves.
  Don't get off the bus until it has stopped.
  It is not until you quit trying that you are a loser.
  Never put off what you can do till tomorrow.
  Don't trouble trouble until trouble trouble you.
  请把上述含有not…until的句子改成倒装句和强调句,同时找出句8的一个小错误。
 
  课堂小练
  1. “May I go and play with Dick this afternoon, Mum?” “No, you can't go out _______ your work is being done.”
  A. before              B. until             C. as               D. the moment
  2. A good storyteller must be able to hold his listeners' curiosity ________ he reaches the end of the story.
  A. when               B. Unless             C. after            D. until
  3. “Was his father very strict with him when he was at school?” “Yes. He had never praised him _______ he became one of the top students in his grade.”
  A. after                B. unless            C. until             D. When
  4.Not until then__________we realize there was an earthquake.I was too frightened to move.
 
  课堂小结:请按照下列提示对本节课进行回顾总结
  1.时间状语引导词有哪些?
  2.时间状语从句的时态问题:①什么叫“主将从现”?这种规律性主要体现在那些从句中?I don't know when he will come.这个句子对不对?②when引导的句型里面有哪些比较固定的时态?③since引导的句子时态有什么特点?哪里容易出错?since翻译成“因为”时还有没有时态限制?④by +时间引导的句子一般与什么时态有关系?
  3.时间状语从句中哪些句型涉及到倒装?你是否能够熟练互换?
  4.It引导的与时间有关的句型,你能够很快很准地做出吗?
  ①It will be three months______________he graduates from school.
  ②It is three months_____________he graduated  from school.
  ③It was three months ago_____________he graduated from school.
  ④It was eight o'clock___________he came back.
  ⑤It was at eight o'clock____________he came back.
  5.when/while/as三者最明显的区别是什么?
  6.While放在句首引导句子时一般可翻译成什么?那么放在句子中间呢?
  7.When的常见状语从句句型你能说全吗?你自己能否拓展when引导的名从和定从吗?
  8.Before的句型你能总结完整并且准确说出before的含义吗?
  9.Every time/the first time/the moment…引导的从句经常怎么考?
  10.包含until的强调句和倒装句以及陈述句你会熟练互换吗?